6 Characteristics of acids and bases

acids and basesAcids and bases are two types of substances that are commonly encountered in chemistry. Here are some key points about acids and bases:

  1. Acids:
  • Definition: Acids are substances that, when dissolved in water, release hydrogen ions (H+). They have a sour taste and can corrode metals.
  • pH: Acids have a pH value below 7 on the pH scale. The lower the pH value, the stronger the acid.
  • Examples: Common examples of acids include lemon juice (citric acid), vinegar (acetic acid), and hydrochloric acid.
  1. Bases:
  • Definition: Bases are substances that, when dissolved in water, release hydroxide ions (OH-). They have a bitter taste and feel slippery.
  • pH: Bases have a pH value above 7 on the pH scale. The higher the pH value, the stronger the base.
  • Examples: Common examples of bases include baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), soap (sodium hydroxide), and ammonia.
  1. Properties of Acids:
  • Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen gas.
  • Acids turn blue litmus paper red.
  • Acids have a sour taste.
  • Strong acids can be corrosive and can cause burns.
  1. Properties of Bases:
  • Bases can neutralize acids to form water and a salt.
  • Bases turn red litmus paper blue.
  • Bases have a bitter taste and feel slippery.
  • Strong bases can be caustic and can cause burns.
  1. pH Scale:
  • The pH scale is a measurement scale that indicates the acidity or basicity of a substance. It ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 being neutral.
  • Values below 7 indicate acidity, with lower values indicating stronger acids.
  • Values above 7 indicate basicity, with higher values indicating stronger bases.

Understanding acids and bases involves recognizing them as two distinct types of substances based on their properties, pH values, and behavior in water. Acids release hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved, while bases release hydroxide ions (OH-). The pH scale is used to measure acidity and basicity, with values below 7 indicating acids, values above 7 indicating bases, and 7 indicating neutrality.

What are acids and bases?

Two are known as bases and acids types of chemicals we can find in nature and whose Contrary characteristics have made them very useful to human beings.

Bases: These are substances that can provide both electrons and capture electrons, have a pH greater than 7 and when mixed with some acids They can form salts.

Acids: These substances have a high concentration of ions hydrogen, its pH is less than 7.

Characteristics of acids and bases

Among the characteristics of the acids and the bases we can mention:


Acids and bases are differentiated by a classification, which depends on the number of ions containing the substance and is determined through its pH level. This scale measures the concentration of the hydronio ions of the substance.

The pH scale has as its starting point the water, whose acidity or alkalinity has a value of 7, which is determined to be neutral. The bases or alkali have a higher value 7 within the scale and the acid substances less than 7.


The Acids and bases are neutralized when they are chemically combined. So they can be neutralized by reaction with a base.

Characteristics of the bases

  • They have a pH greater than 7.
  • Alkaline metals and alkaline that contains magnesium, calcium, potassium or sodium are very soluble in water and form substances of soapy consistency that dissolves organic substances, so they are used to wash clothes, bathe or uncover pipes.
  • Absorb the protons that are free in a solution.
  • Depending on your alkalinity can be dangerous when coming into contact with the skin or the Inhale.
  • Its taste is similar to soap or are bitter.
  • When you get in touch with the paper tornasol, change their color to a green-blue tone, being the most color blue the more alkaline the substance.
  • They are presented in the three states of matter.

Characteristics of acids

  • They have a pH less than 7.
  • They release protons, they react. releasing protons inside the solution where the – Acid.
  • They have a spicy taste or sour known as a flavor, acid.
  • They’re corrosive, they attack the different substances electrochemically.
  • They are presented in the three states of matter, although they are mainly in liquid state or – Gas. In solid state we can find benzoic acid.
  • They have a consistency. oily.
  • Change the coloring of the Paper turns in red, orange or magenta tones.

Examples of acids and bases

Bases Acids
Aluminum hydroxide Acthysaliclic
barium hydroxide Aetic acid
Calcium hydroxide Bromidehy acid
Copper hydroxide Carbonic acid
Hydrooxide of iron Cloric acid
Magnesium hydroxide Cloroso acid
Potassium hydroxide Fluoric acid Hydro
Sodium hydroxide Fluric acid
Titanium hydroxide Fluoroic acid
Zinc hydroxide Acid Hipochloroso

Examples of acids and bases in everyday life

Acids Bases
Stomacal acid Egg lays
Lemon juice Rising
Vinegar Tums-antiacids
Soda Ammonia
Rain water Mineral heats
Milk Drano.

Lewis’s theory acids and bases

The American scientist Gilbert Lewis proposed in 1923 a theory in which he established that an acid is a substance capable of accepting a pair of electrons, as the ions of hydrogen (protons) may receive electrons and this covers non-s. They contain hydrogen.

According to Lewis’ theory, the bases are substances with the ability to donate a pair of electrons. In his theory he includes the acids and bases of Br?nsted-Lowry, donors and proton receptors, respectively; and the acids and bases of Arrhenius, hydrogen ions and hydroxide that reacts in aqueous media.

Importance of acids and bases in everyday life

There are many important acids for the like biological nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA, which They contain the genetic information that is transmitted from one generation to another. We also have the amino acids, which are necessary to produce

In our stomach we have acid hydrochloric, a substance that helps us digest our food.

Animals also have acids, like ants, which produce formic acid to defend themselves.

There are also acids such as vinegar, citric acid, lactic acid and more with many uses and remarkable importance.

The bases are essential for some product manufacturing processes such as paper, fiber and soap. Some are used as medicines for the Stomach, others, are used to extinguish fires and bake desserts. They are as important as acids in daily life.

Frequently Asked Questions about Acids and Bases

Q1: What is an acid?

An acid is a chemical substance that donates hydrogen ions (H+) or protons in a chemical reaction. Acids are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn litmus paper red, and the ability to react with bases to form salts and water.

Q2: What is a base?

A base is a chemical substance that accepts hydrogen ions (H+) or donates hydroxide ions (OH-) in a chemical reaction. Bases are characterized by a bitter taste, a slippery feel, and the ability to turn litmus paper blue. They can react with acids to form salts and water.

Q3: What is pH?

pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a solution. It is a logarithmic scale ranging from 0 to 14, where a pH of 7 is considered neutral, values below 7 indicate acidity, and values above 7 indicate alkalinity. The lower the pH value, the more acidic the solution, while higher pH values indicate increasing alkalinity.

Q4: What are some common examples of acids?

There are many common examples of acids, including:
– Hydrochloric acid (HCl): Found in the stomach and aids in digestion.
– Citric acid: Found in citrus fruits like lemons and oranges.
– Acetic acid: Found in vinegar.
– Sulfuric acid: Widely used in industrial processes.
– Carbonic acid: Found in carbonated beverages.

Q5: What are some common examples of bases?

There are several common examples of bases, including:
– Sodium hydroxide (NaOH): Also known as caustic soda or lye.
– Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂): Also known as lime or slaked lime.
– Ammonia (NH₃): A common household cleaning agent.
– Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃): Also known as baking soda.
– Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)₂): Found in antacids.

Q6: What is the difference between a strong acid and a weak acid?

A strong acid is an acid that completely dissociates or ionizes in water, releasing all of its hydrogen ions. Examples include hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄). In contrast, a weak acid only partially dissociates in water, releasing a smaller fraction of its hydrogen ions. Examples of weak acids include acetic acid (CH₃COOH) and citric acid (C₆H₈O₇).

Q7: How do acids and bases react with each other?

Acids and bases can react with each other in a chemical reaction called neutralization. During neutralization, the hydrogen ions from the acid combine with the hydroxide ions from the base to form water, while the remaining ions combine to form a salt. The resulting solution is typically neutral in pH.

Q8: What are some common uses of acids and bases?

Acids and bases have numerous applications, including:
– Acids: Used in the production of fertilizers, cleaning agents, batteries, and various industrial processes.
– Bases: Used in the production of soaps, detergents, drain cleaners, and antacids. They are also important in many chemical reactions and laboratory experiments.

Please note that the information provided here is for informational purposes only and should not replace professional scientific or chemical advice.

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